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The scipy.integrate sub-package provides several integration techniques including an ordinary differential equation integrator. An overview of the module is provided by the help command:


General integration ( Shirt for Men On Sale in Outlet Blue Melange Cotton 2017 1575 Etro Cheap Clearance High Quality Cheap Price Outlet With Paypal ipv0y

The function quad is provided to integrate a function of one variable between two points. The points can be \(\pm\infty\) ( \(\pm\) inf ) to indicate infinite limits. For example, suppose you wish to integrate a bessel function jv(2.5, x) along the interval \([0, 4.5].\)

\[I=\int_{0}^{4.5}J_{2.5}\left(x\right)\, dx.\]

This could be computed using quad :


The first argument to quad is a “callable” Python object ( i.e. a function, method, or class instance). Notice the use of a lambda- function in this case as the argument. The next two arguments are the limits of integration. The return value is a tuple, with the first element holding the estimated value of the integral and the second element holding an upper bound on the error. Notice, that in this case, the true value of this integral is

\[\textrm{Si}\left(x\right)=\int_{0}^{x}\sin\left(\frac{\pi}{2}t^{2}\right)\, dt.\]

is the Fresnel sine integral. Note that the numerically-computed integral is within \(1.04\times10^{-11}\) of the exact result — well below the reported error bound.

If the function to integrate takes additional parameters, the can be provided in the args argument. Suppose that the following integral shall be calculated:

\[I(a,b)=\int_{0}^{1} ax^2+b \, dx.\]

This integral can be evaluated by using the following code:


Infinite inputs are also allowed in quad by using \(\pm\) inf as one of the arguments. For example, suppose that a numerical value for the exponential integral:

\[E_{n}\left(x\right)=\int_{1}^{\infty}\frac{e^{-xt}}{t^{n}}\, dt.\]

is desired (and the fact that this integral can be computed as special.expn(n,x) is forgotten). The functionality of the function special.expn can be replicated by defining a new function vec_expint based on the routine quad :

There’s no way of knowing for sure, but it would appear that those last 20% of visitors may also be the ones who are more willing to give links to those longer pieces of content.

Now, of course , this isn’t going to be uniform across all verticals.

BUT if your site uses a blog to provide deeply actionable information (like Sale From China DRESSES Long dresses Paolo Casalini Discount Best Seller VwymV
for SaaS) or culture commentary your customers can’t resist (like the GQ Style blog for eCommerce), long form content is absolutely worth considering.

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Which brings me to my next point.

If your written content is going to be long-form, you better damn well be sure it’s readable pleasing to the eyes.

Before we get into the most readable typeface debate, I want you to first understand, there are three things that are more important than what specific typeface you choose.

Various research shows:

1. )Small font sizeslow-contrast are the #1 complaint for web users as it relates to reading online. (Nielson)

2. ) Due to the effects of aging, at 40, only half the light gets through to your retina as it did at age 20. When you’re 60, it’s only about 20%. ( See: Presbyopia) also3/4 of Americans use corrective lenses (Statistic brain)

3.) All readers – but especially low-vision readers – experienced better reading speeds comprehension when line-spacing was set to 1.5 (Psychographics of Reading)

Now this is where it starts to get tricky.

In D Bnonn Tennet’s excellent article, “ Tibi Woman Offtheshoulder Twill Top Antique Rose Size 8 Tibi Comfortable Online Recommend Shop Offer For Sale 100% Authentic TBRFzG
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His central argument is that when you take in account the distance from the screen, 16px font appears to be the same size as printed text, which is normally held much closer to your face.

D Bonn’s argument that larger font sizes being easier to read correspond with findings from studies from Payame Noor University Sale Collections Free Shipping For Cheap SHIRTS Blouses Brock Collection Cheap Real Discount Many Kinds Of tnx58n9uD
whichshow that as the size of type increases, readers also exhibit slightly faster reading speeds – however, both studies also concluded that the results were not statistically significant.

Interestingly enough, even though reading speed or comprehension haven’t been deemed significant, another study has shown that larger font sizes do have the ability to elicit stronger emotional connections.

That’s not surprising considering that the #1 complaint in the Neilson usability study was small font sizes, and Nina Ricci Woman Zipdetailed Velvet Bootcut Pants Violet Size 42 Nina Ricci Cheap Sale Pay With Visa For Sale Online NNqKanffA
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Many of the photographs gathered here [in the exhibition Jeff Wall: The Crooked Path , Bozar, Brussels 2011] from the 1970s and 80s are indebted to the rich and productive paradigm opened by Walker Evans – but Evans understood not as a canny journalist but as modern artist who made striking museum pictures in the ‘documentary style’. The work of Stephen Shore and Thomas Struth is exemplary here. Both photographers are fascinated by the ad hoc, informal development of the urban scene. They make it thinkable and appreciable through the masterly formality of their compositions. Shore’s best-known body of work from that era was published as the book Uncommon Places (1982). Five years later Struth published the book Unconscious Places . Even these titles express Evans’s characteristic attention to the recently forgotten and the ways modern life renders the everyday almost invisible to most citizens.

Shore has understood his photography as belonging equally to the page and the wall. As a result his influence has been as much through publications as exhibitions. His exhibited prints are modest in size and their effect is cumulative. Although they function as individual pictures his attention – like Evans’s – to seriality, mass production and daily ritual invites a movement from one image to the next. The suite of photographs presented over pages or along a wall accommodates and encourages such a reading. This dynamic is present but less emphatic in Thomas Struth’s photographs. Moreover while Struth’s early prints were also close to page size, he belongs to a generation of artists, including Jeff Wall, Jean Marc Bustamante, Andreas Gursky who began to conceive their photographs as individual pictures to be presented at a larger scale in relation to the body of the beholder in the gallery space. This broke once and for all the primacy of the art-photographic page that was first asserted in the 1840s and 1850s, explored as a specifically modern form between the 1920s and the 1950s, and ironised by Pop and Conceptualism in the 1960s and 70s.

While many have argued that the triumph of photography in art since the late 1970s has come in the form of the gallery-specific tableau it would be hasty to overlook the continued significance of photographic publications. The recent renaissance of the ‘photobook’ as a specific form, the flourishing of independent arts publishing (much of it taking its inspiration from the likes of Dan Graham, Robert Smithson and Hans Peter Feldmann) and the seemingly unshakeable status of catalogues and monographic books suggest a more fluid dialogue between page and wall, albeit one that respects the differences.

[i] In 1970 Jeff Wall produced his own contribution to this sub-genre, the photo-text publication , which was also an aleatory exploration of a dejected geography. Three decades on it reappeared in the gallery context in the form of a single photograph from the original publication (, 1969/2003).

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by David Campany

Looked at as a whole the works gathered together here cover one of the richest and most complex periods in the development of photographic art. The collection of Zellweger Luwa AG begins with key works of Conceptual and performance art from the late 1960s and early 70s, passes through what came to be called the ‘postmodern’ arts of appropriation, quotation and re-photography, and concludes with large-scale photographic tableaux. Each of these moments is of course rich and complex in its own right and has been the subject of important exhibitions and critical studies. allows us to consider what is particular about these moments but more importantly perhaps, it allows us to see significant overlaps, dialogues and tensions in the way photography has been understood and what its artistic possibility has been thought to be across the last four decades

Few would dispute that the neo-avant-garde of the 1960s and early 70s continues to loom very large in accounts of the artistic development of photography. The taking up of the medium by artists of all kinds placed it in an expanded field of production. At that juncture the attractions of photography were multiple but quite particular. It seemed to many to have little artistic baggage or accumulated history of the kind that weighed so heavily on the shoulders of painters or sculptors, so it offered the promise of a new start. It allowed a dalliance with something other than high art, perhaps with mass culture, or at least with making art that did not look or feel like high art as traditionally defined. Certain forms of photography were easy to make, or use. It was largely a democratic medium, not perceived as special or privileged. In addition the medium could bring site-specific works, interventions and performances into the space of the gallery and also into the orbit of published reproduction and distribution. Central to this conception was the photograph’s status as base record, document, or . Photography produces imprints of light and by extension traces of that which is before the camera. Whatever else it was, that neo-avant-garde moment involved an equivocal, perhaps irresolvable reflection upon what is at stake in the photograph as and of traces. For example Chris Burden had many of his performances and documented and those actions live on as a series of photographs that oscillate between being historical documents and partial interpretations, between records and artworks. The same could be said of Richard Long’s photographs, which both document his actions in the landscape (moving stones, making paths in the dust or grass) and immortalize them as mythic emblems. That tradition continues in the performance documents made by Roman Signer and the sculptural opportunities photographed by Gabriel Orozco.

The attitudes to photography at that time certainly opened up new artistic paths, and made it possible for new kinds of artists with non-traditional skills and aptitudes to emerge. But it also closed a number of doors. The reductionism, the anti-aestheticism, the de-skilling and the anti-pictorialism were a blessing for some but a curse for others. While important strands of contemporary photographic art can be traced back to the innovations and insights of conceptualism, that moment was also became something to be overcome, particularly if a reengagement with the pictorial was the goal. For there is, at the heart of the matter, a tension between the photograph as trace and the photograph as picture, that is to say between the photograph as document and the photograph as artwork.

To be sure, this is not a new matter. It has been there at the core of nearly all the shades of debate about photography’s merit as art, a debate made rich and strange by the fact that photography’s triumph in art came through its flirtation with its status as document, with science, with automatism, with anonymous vernacular practices and other modes of authorial erasure. Just about all the vanguard art of the last century walked or erased the line between artwork and document, and this is why photography became so central.

Reflecting on the relation between documents and artworks in 1928, Walter Benjamin assembled a list of thirteen propositions formulated as binary pairs:

I The artist makes a work.

The primitive expresses himself in documents.

II The artwork is only incidentally a document.

No document is as such a work of art.

III The artwork is a masterpiece.

The document serves to instruct.

IV On artworks, artists learn their craft.

Before documents, a public is educated.

V Artworks are remote from each other in their perfection.

All documents communicate through their subject matter.

VI In the artwork content and form are one: meaning.

In documents the subject matter is dominant.

VII Meaning is the outcome of experience.

Subject matter is the outcome of dreams.

VIII In the artwork, subject matter is a ballast jettisoned during contemplation.

The more one loses oneself in a document, the denser the subject matter grows.

IX In the artwork, the formal law is central.

Forms are merely dispersed in documents.

X The artwork is synthetic: an energy centre.

The fertility of the document demands: analysis.

XI The impact of an artwork increases with viewing.

A document overpowers only through surprise.

XII The virility of works lies in assault.

The document’s innocence gives it cover.

XIII The artist sets out to conquer meanings.

The primitive man barricades himself behind subject matter.[i]

For all the internal complexity and despite the fact that they are not entirely consistent, these binaries express the idea that the artwork and the document may coexist but will remain irreconcilable. Did Benjamin have in mind two separate and distinct categories of object, or more radically was he proposing that ‘art’ and ‘document’ might be two potentials of the one object? Photography has made its strongest claim to art not by choosing between these oppositions but by insisting on having it both ways, putting itself forward as the medium best placed to dramatize the tensions between artwork and document.

Towards the end of the 1970s a number of important artists began to propose forms of photographic art that shifted image making away from conceptualism’s interest in traces and towards a an exploration with the photograph’s potential as ‘picture’. But just as conceptualism held in tension the idea of the photo as trace here too there were significant differences as to what a photo as picture was, or could be.

In 1977 the US critic Douglas Crimp curated a group show titled ‘Pictures’ for Artists Space in New York. Featuring work by Troy Brauntuch, Jack Goldstein, Sherrie Levine, Robert Longo and Philip Smith, it came to be regarded as an early landmark of postmodern photography, and these artists (along with several others, including Cindy Sherman, Barbara Kruger and Richard Prince) are now often referred to as the ‘Pictures Generation’. This is the second paragraph of Crimp’s essay for the catalogue of that show:


Here ‘pictures’ constituted the dizzying vortex of mass media spectacle rather than what you might find in traditional museums and galleries. Pictures were, as so much postmodern theory went on to proclaim, untrustworthy, illusory, distractive, hegemonic, dangerous to ‘firsthand experience’ and proliferative. A debt to the warnings Guy Debord sent out in 1967 with (first published in English in 1970) is evident, as is an echoing of Jean Baudrillard’s writings on simulation, which he started developing in the mid-1970s.[iii] Crimp reflected on the show the following year in , and again the meaning of the term was pressing:

. [iv]

The ‘Pictures’ artists were trying to make art by means of appropriation and dissimulation in ways that would make sense of, or at least dramatize, the cultish power of images in a world increasingly dominated by advertising. If their art was ever at large-scale it was in order to allude to publicity, the cinema screen or the cityscape of advertising, rarely to the bodily scale of the painted canvas or sculpture. Large meant looking too large, ‘blown-up’. When the artworks were presented at small-scale, as many of these originally were, this played on the fact that imagery derived from printed pages looks smaller on the wall than in the hand, creating an air of knowing, faux-classical seriousness.

For example, the scale of Cindy Sherman’s 10-by-8 inch prints of her series was deceptive. They resembled magazine-sized images or standard publicity shots for page reproduction or display outside movie theatres. At the same time, 10-by-8 was the sanctified format of purist fine art photographers, who, if they had become aware of Sherman’s play with masquerade and role-play, would probably have been quite baffled by it. Only when artists began to explore greater scale in the late 1980s did Sherman reprint some of the seriesmuch larger (40 by 30 inches), evoking less the classical museum picture than the cinema screen.[v] Richard Prince also began to enlarge his source images beyond the magazine page, while Sherrie Levine stayed close to the scale of the printed matter she was copying.

Around this time a number of artist photographers began to explore a very different idea of the photograph as picture. For them pictures were not simply things to be overthrown or ironised. Rather, in their connection with the pictorial tradition, they contained a promise, a way of outflanking spectacle and carving out something else, a way of picture making that reconnected with those modes of picturing that were once predominant but had been repressed by the iconoclasm of the avant-gardes. In 2007 Jeff Wall ventured:


This is close to Jean-François Chevrier’s idea of the photograph as tableau.[vii] While this term may connote staging or something overtly theatrical, it need not involve any of that. A photograph is apprehended as a tableau if it is given to be seen, by whatever means, as an internally organised image that compels on the basis of that organisation. It may be documentary in origin or highly staged, but what is important is that the mode of attention and aesthetic judgment solicited by the tableau is itself a way of ‘artificing’ it. The tableau always has, at least in part, an ideal, a promise.[viii] Of course, this idea has existed for centuries in painting, but when it appears in photography it produces a tension between the image’s status as evidence or trace, which locates it in the past, and its pictorial organisation, which conjures an imaginary, contemplative dimension.

So, in parallel to the Pictures Generation there emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s what we might call a ‘picture generation’ (although the artists may not have seen themselves in such terms). Along with Wall the list would include Jean Marc Bustamante, Hannah Collins, Thomas Struth, Andreas Gursky and Hiroshi Sugimoto. Such works understand photography not as a pretender, not as medium to hang on the wall with irony or the mocking distance of an outsider. On the contrary, these artists accepted that there was no longer any anything to be gained by behaving as if photography was only effective as a provocation to the academy. The challenge was to find a way to take up and renew the pictorial tradition, working with contemporary concerns in depictive form.

In many respects the internal paradoxes of the photographic medium have at each historical moment produced splits, rifts and oppositions in the way it is to be understood and pursued as art. The tensions in conceptualism over the photo as trace, and the ensuing tensions over the photograph as picture might be thought of as instances of this. But it would be hasty to assume that the animating force of photography as art simply moved from a preoccupation with the trace in the 60s and 70s to the picture in the 80s and 90s and 2000s. Although photography ‘matters as art as never before’, to paraphrase Michael Fried’s recent account of the situation, there can be no unified assessment of exactly it matters. And this lack of unification is implicit in the medium itself. There is a thread that connects the photographs of Chris Burden’s performances to Gordon Matta Clark’s photographs of sculptural-architectural interventions, to Cindy Sherman’s , to Sarah Lucas’s performative provocations before the camera, to the photographs produced by Matthew Barney in conjunction with his films and multi-media installations. Similarly a thread connects Ed Ruscha’s ‘artless’ photographs of American gas stations to Hiroshi Sugimoto’s ‘artful’ typology of movie theatre interiors, to Andreas Gursky’s topographic landscapes and the photos of flowers by Fischli Weiss

That thread has something to do with both the trace and the picture, the document and the artwork. Something is recorded before for the camera but the camera also poses, theatricalises what it records. The camera is not outside of what is presented to it. Rather, it is complicit with it.

Jeff Wall,, 1991

It seems fitting that this collection includes a key historical precursor of these productive ambiguities, a 1921 portrait by Man Ray of Marcel Duchamp as Rrose Sélavy. But it is perhaps more instructive to consider as emblematic of all this an image made in 1991, roughly in the middle of the period covered by the Zellweger Luwa AG collection. , by Jeff Wall shows an informal, semi-planned area, perhaps on the outskirts of a city, where nature begins to give way to industrial development. The foreground is a flattened expanse of uncut damp grass and shrubs fading from the greens of late summer to the straw browns of autumn. A path, in places worn down to the bare earth, extends from the lower edge of the composition, through the foreground and into the mid-ground. It is, as the title states, a crooked path, the result of repeated crossings by animals, or, more likely, by humans. A second, lighter path traverses the grass from left to right, forming an irregular cross in the middle of the scene. In the background on the right we see the typically modular architecture of a large food processing depot. Emblazoned on the side is the company name. The company has made an attempt to soften the harsh outline of the building by painting it a pale sky blue. But the sky on this day is overcast and colourless. The building is partially obscured from the camera’s view by the leafless trees and telegraph poles that sketch the border between the uneven grass and the tarmac or concrete surface, which cannot be see but we know must be there in the distance. On the left of the photograph, amid the trees, is a small group of beehives, distinguished by their brightly painted stripes. Some of these stripes match the blue of the factory building. The path seems to beheading between the beehives and the factory but ends nowhere in particular, at least nowhere we can see.

Although Wall has made ‘cinematographic’ images in which scenes are prepared in advance he has also made many ‘documentary’ images, in which places or situations encountered in the world are simply framed and photographed. Sometimes his cinematographic images advertise their own artifice, and sometimes they don’t. Sometimes his documentary-looking images are naturalistic; sometimes their formality as pictures raises the spectre of artifice. The documentary claim is put forward but suspended, and in that suspension other ways of relating to the image and what it depicts are permitted to emerge. Wall himself notes of this image: “It’s a little path made by its users, without a plan, in order to do something that the usual administration could not or did not do – so there’s a slight trace of disobedience or independence – people may do things that we can’t predict.” He refers to it as ‘a’ path, which of course it is, but for the title of his photograph he has chosen what in English called the definite article: ‘The’ Crooked Path. The distinction is significant both for Wall, whose titles over the years indicate a very careful understanding of the matter, and for the photographic medium as such. A photograph refers to and describes things in their particularity – . Strictly speaking one cannot photograph ‘the’ crooked path; one can only photograph ‘a’ crooked path, one instance of a potentially limitless number of crooked paths in the world. (One can photograph ‘the’ Queen of England because there is only one, and to title it ‘A Queen’ would be a mild subversion of the idea of monarchy). To title this photograph ‘The Crooked Path’ is to draw the image away from its status as prosaic document or trace and towards a more pictorial, symbolic or allegorical reading.

There is nothing particularly special about this path. What might transform it is the way in which it has been photographed and how the photograph’s title might encourage us to make sense of it. So what might be ‘The Crooked Path’ here? Is it the path between nature and industry, perhaps? Between the country and the city? Between subsistence farming and corporate food production? Between nature’s chaos and modernity’s fantasy of order? Between civilization and its discontents? Between summer and winter? It could be one, or all, or none of these because a symbolic title cannot guarantee anything. It can only suggest, and as such it is in irresolvable tension with the factuality of the photograph.

And the brute fact of the path is important too. A path is a trace, so a photo of such a path is a trace of a trace. Wall’s photograph of that worn path conjures up memories of marks left in nature by performance artists and Land artists. So might the crooked path here be between the photograph as raw document and the symbolic language of composition and titling? The crooked path between trace and picture.

[i] ‘Thirteen Theses Against Snobs’ in Walter Benjamin’s ‘One Way Street’ (1928), (New Left Books, London 1979) pp. 66-67. Why? Benjamin makes light of the arbitrariness by quoting Marcel Proust: “Thirteen – stopping at this number I felt a cruel pleasure”).

[ii] D. Crimp, ‘Pictures’, in Artists Space, New york, 1977, n.p.

[iii] See Jean Baudrillard , London: Sage Publications Ltd, 1976.

[iv] D. Crimp, ‘About Pictures: Picture as Representation as Such’, , no.88–89, March–April 1979, p.34.

[v] Sherman evoked classical museum pictures in her series (1989–90). Discussing the origins of these images, she has said: ‘When I was doing those I was living in Rome but never went to the churches and museums there. I worked out of books, with reproductions. It’s an aspect of photography I appreciate conceptually: the idea that images can be reproduced and seen anytime, anywhere, by anyone.’ See Michael Kimmelman, ‘At the Met With: Cindy Sherman; Portraitist in the Halls of Her Artistic Ancestors’, 19 May 1995.

[vi] ‘Jeff Wall Talks About his Work’, public lecture at The Museum of Modern Art, New YorkFebruary 26, 2007.

[vii] See Jean-François Chevrier, ‘The Adventures of the Picture Form in the History of Photography’ (1989, trans. Michael Gilson), in Douglas Fogle (ed.), (exh. cat.), Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, pp.113–28.

[viii] Jay Caplan argues that the tense of the tableau (in classical painting at least) is future perfect, ‘the tense that makes a past out of the present (or entombs it). “What will have been” is the present viewed from an imaginary perspective in the future: a perspective that simultaneously recognises the mobility (or inherent “pastness”) of the present and claims to bring it all together from a fixed (transcendent), future perspective. It reconciles the fact of mobility (of life) with a desire for immobility (for death).’ J. Caplan, , Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1986, pp.89–90.

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by David Campany

Essay by David Campany, plus a conversation with John Stezaker


27 x 21 cm / 10.6 x 8.3 inches 144 pages /63 colour illustrations ISBN: 978 1 905464 41 8

Posted on August 11, 2011 by David Campany

The Lens, the Shutter and the Light Sensitive Surface

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classification of atlanto-axial rotatory fixation

Type I: Rotatory fixation without anterior displacement of the atlas

Type II: Rotatory fixation with anterior displacement of the atlas by 3–5 mm

Type III: Rotatory fixation with anterior displacement of more than 5 mm

Type IV: Rotatory fixation with posterior displacement

Atlanto-axial asymmetry following neck trauma may be due to a number of factors ranging from technical deficiencies to normal variants to actual AARF. Technical factors include misalignment of the x ray beam in relation to the patient’s head. Essential Top SWAN LAKEWHITE SWAN by VIDA VIDA Discount Low Price Fee Shipping 0ADPxY
A number of characteristics of the misaligned beam on the peg view will help determine whether this is the cause of the asymmetry (figs 1 and 2):

Figure 1

 Poorly centred peg view showing odontoid lateral mass asymmetry.

Figure 2

 Well centred peg view showing persisting odontoid lateral mass asymmetry.

Is the spinous process of C2 central?

Are the facet joints symmetrical?

Are the molars, mandible, and incisors symmetrical?

Resnick recommends five open mouth views rotated/tilted left and right. 2018 Unisex Largest Supplier Cheap Price TOPWEAR Tops Imperial Fashion Style Cheap Clearance fD7Mm
Odontoid lateral mass asymmetry should persist in all views. 3 On the lateral view the atlanto–dens interval should be <3 mm in an adult and <5 mm in a child. This interval should be seen to be increased in the lateral view or to increase in flexion views. 4

The odontoid process develops from two parallel columns of bone which usually grow symmetrically. Cheap Sale View 2018 Unisex Cheap Online SHIRTS Shirts W Les Femmes Free Shipping Footlocker Pictures 1MHhHPrc
If there is dysplasia of one of these columns, it will give an impression of asymmetry of the odontoid lateral mass space on the affected side. Hypoplasia of the lateral mass of the atlas will have the same effect. 6 On review of the 10 CT scans that showed persisting asymmetry, we found either mild hypoplasia of odontoid or the lateral mass of the atlas on each occasion (fig 3).

Figure 3

 Computed tomography scan showing mild hypoplasia of right lateral mass of atlas and persisting odontoid lateral asymmetry.

In terms of costs and radiation exposure, proceeding directly to CT without taking repeated plain films has a significant impact on patient welfare and departmental expenditure. As stated above almost 50% of our patients underwent CT scanning out of hours. We estimate that cervical spine CT scanning exposes a patient to approximately 2000 μSv as opposed to 70 μSv for a plain film. Thus even after allowing for several repeated films to be taken, the radiation exposure is still significantly less than with a CT scan. In our department, a CT scan of the cervical spine has a fixed cost of €450, as opposed to €60 for a plain x ray. The cost of repeating several plain films is still less than a CT scan. We have not factored in the associated cost of paying an on-call CT radiographer to attend out of hours.

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